Stems, Words & Phrases

Summarizing, Paraphrasing, and Quotation Stems

Sentence Stems to Refer to Research

Using evidence to support your ideas means you will have to be careful to avoid accidentally plagiarizing from any sources you’re using.

That means you’ll need to cite information you use. There are two basic ways you could do this.

refer to author first + share evidence


share evidence + refer to author’s name

Download a PDF version of the sentence stems to refer to research shown below.

Screenshot 2016-02-17 19.17.49



Summarizing, Paraphrasing, Quotation “Stems”

When writing using evidence you might need to summarize, paraphrase, or quote short sections of text.

A sentence stem can help you pull the evidence out of a piece of text so it can go into your writing.

Download the PDF version of the paraphrase,summarize,quote stems shown below.

Screenshot 2016-02-17 19.12.19

Screenshot 2016-02-17 19.12.32 Screenshot 2016-02-17 19.12.42


Transition Words and Phrases

Transition words and phrases help an essayist make the writing flow, providing the reader with smooth reading. An essay without transition words and phrases can give the reader whiplash, jerking him/her from one point to the next.

You can download the list of transition words I’ve compiled and categorized  shown below by clicking HERE.




Or you can choose your transition words wisely from the lists below.

according to meanwhile
additionally most important
after nevertheless
again next
although nonetheless
another now
as soon as of course
as a ______ oh, sure
at the same time on the one hand
at this point on the other side
finally or consider
for years/months perhaps
fortunately questions: When? How? Where?
however similarly
immediately so
in any case somehow
in other words soon
in short still
in the meantime then
it is clear that ______ therefore
just consider this
likewise thus
maybe when